Terrorism Prevention at the National Aerospace University
Terrorism as a political and legal phenomenon has its roots in antiquity. Unfortunately, criminals continue to achieve their goals by committing criminal acts that are recognized as terrorist under international and national law. Terrorism has no borders and is a universal scourge.
According to the legislation of Ukraine, terrorist activity is considered to include:
- planning, organization, preparation and implementation of terrorist acts;
- incitement to commit terrorist acts, violence against individuals or organizations, destruction of material objects for terrorist purposes;
- organization of illegal armed groups, criminal groups or criminal organizations, organized criminal groups for committing terrorist acts, as well as participation in such acts;
- recruitment, armament, training and use of terrorists;
- propaganda and dissemination of the ideology of terrorism;
- financing of knowingly terrorist groups (organizations) and other assistance to them.
On 1934, after the assassination in Marseilles of King Alexander Karageorgiyovych of Yugoslavia and French Foreign Minister Louis-Jean Barthou, and especially Polish Interior Minister Bronislaw Peracki, Poland joined the League of Nations demanding international sanctions against terrorism. It was first of all about not granting political asylum to emigrants.
One of the first, on April 29, 1958, was the Multilateral Geneva Convention on the High Seas, which contained a number of articles on the fight against terrorism on the high seas - piracy.
On December 16, 1970, the Hague Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft was concluded, and on September 23, 1971, the Montreal Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against Civil Aviation was concluded, regulating cooperation in combating terrorist acts means of transportation.
On December 14, 1973, the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents, was adopted.
On January 26, 1977, in Strasbourg, after a detailed discussion of the issue in the bodies of the Council of Europe, the Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism was signed.
A special committee on terrorism has been operating at the United Nations since 1973, working mainly in three areas:
- development and harmonization of legal norms, preparation of international treaties and conventions;
- identifying and studying the causes of terrorism;
- development of measures to combat terrorism.
In 1999, the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism was adopted. According to Article 8 of the Convention, “each State shall, for the purposes of possible confiscation in accordance with the principles of domestic law, take measures to identify, detect, block or seize any funds used or allocated for the purpose of committing offenses covered by the Convention, as well as funds received as a result of such crimes. Each State Party concerned may consider concluding distribution agreements with other States on a regular basis or on a case-by-case basis with the proceeds of confiscation, and shall consider establishing mechanisms to use the proceeds of confiscation, to pay compensation to victims of crime or their family members".
The Convention has developed practical measures to establish an effective system of control over financial flows at both the international and domestic levels. The priority of this area of international cooperation in the fight against terrorism is evidenced by Resolution 1373, adopted by the UN Security Council on September 28, 2001 at the 4385th meeting, which identified among the main measures to combat terrorism joint action to eliminate its financial flows.
It states that “all states have:
а) to prevent and stop the financing of terrorist acts;
б) criminalize the intentional transfer or collection of funds by any means, directly or indirectly, by their citizens or in their territory for use (or intent to use) to commit terrorist acts;
в) immediately block funds and other financial assets or economic resources of persons who commit or attempt to commit terrorist acts, or participate in the commission of terrorist acts, or contribute to their commission; organizations directly or indirectly owned or controlled by such persons, as well as persons and organizations acting on behalf or by order of such persons and organizations, including funds received or acquired through property directly or indirectly owned or under the control of such persons and persons and organizations associated with them;
г) prohibit its citizens or any persons and organizations in its territory from providing any funds, financial assets, economic resources or financial and other relevant services, directly or indirectly, for use in the interests of persons who commit or attempt to commit terrorist acts, or participate in or facilitate the commission of terrorist acts; organizations directly or indirectly owned or controlled by such persons, as well as persons and organizations acting on behalf or by order of such persons".
On March 5, 2019, by his Decree №-53/2019, the President of Ukraine approved the Concept of Combating Terrorism in Ukraine.
Any facts of arrival and stay in the region of suspects, intentions to carry out terrorist, sabotage or intelligence activities can be reported:
to the e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
to the 24-hour toll-free hotline of the Security Service of Ukraine +380 80 050 1482